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Published resources for nuclear energy planning and decision-making

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NICE Future Initiative Reports

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Link Title Body Publication Date Source Topics State options to keep nuclear in the energy mix This report examines state policy activity oriented to the promotion of nuclear energy, including zero-emissions credits, energy portfolio standards, state-mandated power purchase agreements, carbon markets and tax incentives. The authors explore these issues via case studies, an examination of closures and a review of the interaction between state and federal agency oversight. 1/1/17 National Conference of State Legislatures Technologies[FINAL].pdf Zero-emissions credits and the threat to optimal state incentives This paper examines the zero-emission credits (ZECs) offered to nuclear power producers in the U.S. states of Illinois and New York.  The author concludes that while the legal argument for state jurisdiction may have prevailed, there is an argument against ZECs on economic optimality grounds. 12/1/16 Energy Bar Association Economics Atoms for Africa: Is there a future for civil nuclear power in sub-Saharan Africa? This report focuses on nuclear energy as one pathway to meeting the twin challenges of alleviating energy poverty and minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Part 1 outlines the state of nuclear power deployment in sub-Saharan Africa. Part 2 gives an overview of what the challenges of deploying nuclear power are likely to be. And Part 3 describes advanced nuclear technology and how it could increase the likelihood of nuclear development. 1/1/18 Center for Global Development Technologies A comparative review of China, India and Pakistan renewable energy sectors and sharing opportunities This journal article presents a comparative review of the renewable energy sectors and sharing opportunities in China, India and Pakistan and foresees a significant role for nuclear energy in the future regional energy mix.  The authors describe these opportunities in the context of regional development and security.  They also detail future energy demands and renewable energy targets, a comparison of renewable energy sectors, resource mixes, and projects. 5/1/16 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Economics Assessing the impacts of nuclear desalination and geoengineering to address China's water shortages This techno-economic study, using the Desalination Economic Evaluation Program developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, shows that by 2030, China will have the capacity to produce 23.1 billion cubic meters of water annually, at $0.86/cubic meter, as a coproduct of electricity generation through nuclear power, provided the country favors desalination over water diversion.  The authors argue that this policy is more economical and less risky than diversion over the long term. 1/10/15 University of California at Berkeley Applications Nuclear retirement effects on CO2 emissions The authors of this report argue that although subsidies for nuclear power in an environment of falling energy prices may be substantial, they represent a cost-effective means of avoiding  emissions that would otherwise be generated by other energy sources. 12/19/16 The Brattle Group Economics Revisiting the nuclear power construction costs escalation curse Using contemporary nuclear power plan construction data from France, the authors of this study explore the factors that drive the increasing costs of nuclear power.  They finds that  a learning effect is experienced when deploying a fleet of similarly-designed and/or colocated reactors.  However, increasing labor costs have the opposite effect, driving higher construction costs, according to the authors. 1/1/13 International Association for Energy Economics Economics Nuclear power plant construction costs This market report identifies resources, commodities and manufacturing capacity as principal cost drivers for nuclear power plants.  The high costs reported result in overnight generation rate estimates of $1,200 per kilowatt (kW) to $4,540/kW and total operation costs that range up to $8,081/kW.  The authors report projects future increases in construction costs due in part to an average cost overrun of 207 per cent.  The authors discuss some policies that could be critical in overcoming cost barriers. 7/1/08 Synapse Energy Economics, Inc. Economics Towards a more complete and accurate experimental nuclear reaction data library (EXFOR): International collaboration between nuclear reaction data centres (NRDC) The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres is a collaborative effort coordinated by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section.  It functions to share and maintain data in the Exchange Format (EXFOR) library. This journal article highlights the state of that library, its development and recent additions. 6/1/14 Nuclear Data Sheets Technologies Seawater desalination technology route and analysis of production capacity for large commercial nuclear power plant These conferences proceedings present the state of nuclear seawater desalination development with an emphasis on its progress in China. The authors analyse the ACP1000 reactor to demonstrate the economic and social benefits of the technology for areas with electricity and water shortages. 1/1/16 Proceedings of the 20th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference Technologies Nuclear power as a tool for sustainable development This short report outlines reasons for employing nuclear power in response to climate change and growing energy demands. The authors point to case studies in Bangladesh, Ukraine and France. 8/1/19 World Ecology Report Economics Approach for SMART application to desalination and power generation This paper reviews the concept of integrating a SMART reactor with seawater desalination system in the context of Korea's nuclear regulatory system.  The authors proposes a framework for international cooperation on technological development of nuclear power for nonelectric uses.   Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Applications A global overview on nuclear desalination This journal article provides an overview of the economics, opportunities, barriers and technology for nuclear desalination. The author proposes a value stack approach for desalination but acknowledges that the countries for which the technology would be most useful are generally not nuclear powers. 1/1/09 International Journal of Nuclear Desalination Applications Nuclear desalination: Preferred solutions and future directions This conference paper reviews the technologies that are applicable to nuclear desalination. The authors conclude that combining thermal and membrane desalination processes and technologies within a hybrid plant scheme, particularly when coupled to Nuclear Power Plant PWR, can reduce desalinated water costs in dual-purpose stations, add flexibility and better match the demand to the combined water and power production, and minimize the environmental impact of power desalination plants. 12/1/16 International Desalination Association (IDA) International Energy and Environment Forum Technologies Desalination and other non-electric applications of nuclear energy This short article discusses the need for desalination, the suitability of nuclear power to the task of desalination and the techno-economic details of its implementations in various countries. 3/1/02 Workshop on Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors: Physics, Design and Safety Technologies Innovative development of nuclear desalination technologies and cost improvement approaches This report provides an overview of the technical and economic case for nuclear desalination.  It focuses on optimization of coupling, advanced technology trends and ways to reduce costs. 5/1/18 Annals of Faculty Engineering Hunedoara: International Journal of Engineering Technologies, Applications Economic and safety aspects in nuclear seawater desalination This study assesses the viability of nuclear desalination for providing potable water and as a means of diversifying the energy portfolio of Algeria. 1/1/12 Procedia Engineering Applications,Economics Advances in nuclear desalination in BARC (India) The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has worked on desalination development in India since the 1970s.  This report summarizes those efforts, including a description of the national strategy, demonstration projects, technologies and future plans.   Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Technologies Environmental issues related to nuclear desalination This journal article reviews the adverse environmental impacts of nuclear desalination. Where marine impacts are concerned, the authors propose mitigation strategies based on alternative intake designs or cooling systems. Where atmospheric impacts are concerned, they propose looking into the coupling with the nuclear power source. They also examine public opinion trends and find increasing favourability. 1/1/10 World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Marine and Environmental Sciences Technologies Single and dual purpose nuclear deslination The paper compares single-purpose water production with dual-purpose production of water and electricity. The author finds that the two processes are thermodynamically competitive rather than complimentary.  Because a dedicated water production plant may be more efficient than a dual-use configuration, the author advocates for situation-specific analyses of the water and electricity needs in a given situation. 3/22/10 Proceeding of the First International Nuclear and Renewable Energy Conference INREC10 Technologies Nuclear energy for heat applications The authors of this report argue that nuclear energy has potential beyond electricity production.  They highlight examples in Canada, Czechoslovakia, the U.S.S.R. , and China of heat generation, desalination and industrial energy parks. And they note that different plant designs have different heat generation potential and therefore will have varying levels of applicability to these nonelectric applications. 1/1/91 IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Bulletin Applications Summary report of the INL-JISEA workshop on nuclear hybrid energy systems This document reports on a joint Institute for Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (INEST)/ Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) workshop on hybrid energy systems, which are defined as having multiple energy source inputs and two or more coupled subsystems leading to the production of one or more energy commodities as outputs. 7/1/12 Idaho National Laboratory Technologies Fostering nuclear science in schools through innovative approaches: IAEA perspectives Industrial and economic growth involving nuclear science and technology depends on a pipeline of next generation talent emerging from secondary schools, according to the authors of this report. The IAEA Technical Corporation has fostered the development of this skillset in schools throughout the Asia-Pacific region by providing technical support on nuclear topics as well as educational support. To build on program successes, efforts are being evaluated and expanded. 1/1/19 Radiation Environment and Medicine Partnerships Toward closing the gender gap in nuclear science This article describes the International Atomic Energy Agency's progress on improving gender parity in the nuclear industry via the Women in Nuclear program.  As evidence of success, the program points to a shift from 2007 to 2017 when women went from 22.5% of the nuclear workforce to 29%. 11/1/18 IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Bulletin Partnerships Nuclear S&T workforce development programs This report describes the various programs undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy to foster training and research in the nuclear sciences, including NEUP, IUP, R&D, SCEP STEP, MSI, MSIPP, NSSC, CVT, CNEC, NGFP, NNIS, CSGF, SSGF, SULI, CCI, VFP, SCGSR, NCSS programs.  It also explores similarly intentioned efforts undertaken by the U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 12/1/16 U.S. Department of Energy|Argonne National Laboratory|Idaho National Laboratory Partnerships Human resource development in new nuclear energy states: Case studies from the Middle East The authors of this report argue for the development of institutional and human capacity in support of countries seeking to develop nuclear power. They specifically examines Jordan, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates to assess these countries’ programs. The report includes recommendations on how the international community can best support nuclear development in other nations. 6/22/16 The Brookings Institute Policies Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature demonstration reactor point design This report examines a 100-megawatt demonstration reactor concept that is intended to be small, simple and affordable. Constructed with lower risk and cost technologies, it will permit research en route to eventual commercial scale implementations, according to the authors. 2/1/16 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technologies The Shandong Shidao Bay 200 MWe high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM) demonstration power plant: An engineering and technological innovation A new high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module demonstration power plant was completed in June 2015, in Shandong, China.  The 210-megawatt plant represents an achievement of industrial cooperation in service to safety and economy, according to the authors.  It employs three safety measures: silicon carbide fuel cladding, low power core volumetric power density and small reactor modules. 10/1/16 Engineering: The official journal of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and Higher Education Press Technologies Material selection for accident tolerant fuel cladding Alternative cladding materials to zirconium (Zr)-based alloys are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as greater than 100 times improvement (compared to Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments. This study evaluated several options and discusses some advantages of alternative materials for improved performance. 1/1/15 Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E Technologies On-going studies at CEA on chromium coated zirconium based fuel claddings for enhanced accident tolerant LWRS fuel This journal article focuses on results obtained on chromium-coated cladding on Zircaloy-4 and substrate. The authors show that the chromium coatings developed so far might significantly improve the post-HT oxidation-clad mechanical properties (i.e., ductility and strength) compared to conventional uncoated materials. So, the developed chromium coatings provide significant additional margins for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and, to some extent, beyond-LOCA conditions. 9/19/15 International Journal of Global Energy Issues Technologies Quantitative cost and schedule risk analysis of nuclear waste storage This study was commissioned to provide an independent “outside-in” estimate of the cost and schedule risks of nuclear waste storage projects. The authors analyse cost and schedule risk profiles of 22 completed nuclear waste storage projects, 194 nuclear new builds and 31 underground mining projects. 12/10/18 Oxford Global Projects Technologies The case for nuclear fuel recycling This article presents an overview of used nuclear fuel reprocessing reactor deployments around the world. The authors discuss the international reprocessing economy, and they describe the economic and fuel security benefits of a reprocessing reactor program. 2/1/16 Nuclear News Technologies Closed fuel cycle waste treatment strategy The authors of this study evaluate the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the United States under existing legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The authors summarize the waste arising from (1) aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and (2) electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. Mass and volume estimates for each of the recommended waste forms based on the source terms from a representative flowsheet are reported. In addition to the above listed primary waste streams, a range of secondary process wastes are generated by aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel, metal SFR fuel fabrication and electrochemical reprocessing of SFR fuel. These secondary wastes are summarized, and volumes are estimated by type and classification. 2/1/15 Idaho National Laboratory Technologies Treatment of spent nuclear fuel for separation, immobilization and disposal of heat generating high level fission products, caesium and strontium Separation of heat-generating, high-level fission product cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel boost the capacity of waste repositories by as much as 50 times, according to the authors of this article.  In it, they discuss separation and nuclear waste immobilization techniques; they say the most feasible methods of these are UNEX and synthetic rock respectively. They also discuss a safe disposal system. 12/7/17 Journal of Chemical Engineering Technologies Exploring alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal in Mexico This report summarizes several approaches to the management of spent fuel. The authors focus on the needs of light water reactors, the lifespans of which are being extended, thereby pushing the limits of on-site spent fuel pools.  The report include studies from Argentina, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Chile, Egypt, Japan, Mexico, Russia, and Ukraine. 1/1/15 International Atomic Energy Agency Technologies Increasing load flexibility and plant dynamics of thermal power plants via the implementation of thermal energy storages According to the authors of this paper, the integration of thermal energy storages (TES) is a promising approach to achieving load flexibility of power plants at economically competitive prices. They use SandTES technology, an active particle-based TES system, to demonstrate the flexibility enhancement via TES integration. Their results give an overview about the chances and restrictions of this implementation concept. 6/1/16 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) 2016 Power Conference collocated with the ASME 2016 10th International Conference on Energy Sustainability and the ASME 2016 14th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Technologies Nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems: FY17 stakeholder engagement and international activities This report summarizes stakeholder engagement associated with the nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HES) program, which brings nuclear technology developers and industry users of nuclear energy together to establish a “new paradigm for industrial energy production and use.” 10/1/17 Idaho National Laboratory Applications Generation and use of thermal energy in the U.S. industrial sector and opportunities to reduce its carbon emissions This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use; doing so provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat and geothermal energy, according to the authors. They say the report complements analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions. 12/1/16 Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) Technologies Small modular reactors: The future or the swansong of the nuclear industry? The authors of this book chapter argue that economy of scale arguments do not apply to small modular reactors because they have designs that are fundamentally different from large reactors. Instead, they suggest small modular reactors exhibit comparable economy with the additional benefit of increased flexibility and cogenerative capacity at a lower product cost.The authors of this book chapter argue that economy of scale arguments do not apply to small modular reactors because they have designs that are fundamentally different from large reactors. Instead, they suggest small modular reactors exhibit comparable economy with the additional benefit of increased flexibility and cogenerative capacity at a lower product cost. 1/1/16 Delivering Energy Law and Policy in the EU and the US Technologies Thermal energy storage systems for district heating and cooling This book chapter describes the application of thermal storage techniques in Nordic countries and provides techno-economic analyses.  Though the authors note the use of nuclear in some cases, the analysis are largely agnostic about the power source. 1/1/15 Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems Applications The development of small modular reactors: Which markets for which applications? The authors present an overview of the market environment for small modular reactors, noting that the are differing opinions about the economy, application and suitability of the technology.  Given the uncertain market, the authors offer policy recommendations focused on leveraging the safety and economic benefits of mass production as well as the niche market potential for these reactors. 1/1/16 Eclairages Technologies Heat transport analysis in a district heating system applying waste heat from GTHTR300, a commercial design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor This technical analysis describes the design and efficiency of a district heating system using a GTHTR300 reactor in Hokkaido, Japan.  The system goal is to provide structural heating and road snow melting using the reactor's waste heat while considering safety. The authors describe the differences in efficiency between single- and double-pipe implementations, and they present the relationship between efficiency, construction cost and long-term system economy. 10/31/15 Bulletin of the JSME (Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers) Technologies Initial economic appraisal of nuclear district heating in France This journal article provides background on nuclear cogeneration for district heating, describes a techno-economic model with which to evaluate its application and applies the model to a proposed implementation for district heating in Paris. The cost modeling limits itself to heat transport lines. The policy context is built on a government mandate to alter the share of production derived from nuclear. 6/29/16 EPJ Nuclear Sciences and Technology Applications On the economics of stand-alone renewable hybrid power plants in remote regions This journal article investigates the costs of stand-alone renewable hybrid power plants on a Greek island and compares them to the cost of the currently used fossil-fuel-based conventional plant. The author shows that the higher cost of electricity of such a remote region can increase the competitiveness and promote the wider incorporation of technologies based on renewable energy sources. 6/15/16 Energy Conversion and Management Economics Northern indigenous peoples and the prospects for nuclear energy These conference proceedings explore indigenous attitudes about and relationships with the nuclear energy industry as a whole. The first section consists of a jurisdictional review of select international and domestic Indigenous perspectives on nuclear energy and uranium mining. Government reports, submissions to environmental review processes, news articles, blog posts and scholarly research were among the primary data sources used. In particular, the authors reviewed the sentiments of indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States. The second section consists of a short review of energy consumption and energy costs in Canada’s Far North to further understand the pressures the region faces with electricity production. 11/2/16 4th International Technical Meeting on Small Reactors Technologies Contribution of microreactor technology and flow chemistry to the development of green and sustainable synthesis Microreactor technology and flow chemistry could play a pivotal role in the context of sustainable development, according to the authors of this journal article. According to them, flow chemistry is becoming a new technique for fulfilling several of the twelve green chemistry principles. They suggest a micro-reactor approach could preserve atom economy, guarantee less hazardous chemical synthesis and allow the use of safer solvents and auxiliaries. And it pushes towards chemistry designs with lower environmental and economic impact, enhances the importance of catalysis, allows real-time analysis for pollution prevention and provides inherently safer chemistry. 3/14/17 Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry Technologies Strategies to ensure safety measures for ABWRs in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station These proceeding describe strategies to ensure safety measures for advanced boiling water reactors (ABWRs) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The authors analysed the Fukushima Daiichi accident, extracted lessons learned from it and derived from it policies to enhance safety and containment integrity. 6/1/16 2016 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering Technologies Fast reactors and related fuel cycles: Safe technologies and sustainable scenarios FR13 The conference described in these proceedings was structured to cover all the major technical aspects of fast reactors and related fuel cycles. The objective of the conference was to provide a forum for exchanging information on fast reactor and fuel cycle technology advances, and related safety, economic and proliferation resistance issues. The conference also aimed to identify gaps and key issues that need to be addressed that relate to the industrial-scale introduction of fast reactors, including public acceptance. Several existing fast reactors, current construction projects and innovative fast reactor concepts that are under development at national and international levels were reviewed and discussed. 3/1/13 Proceedings of an International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13) Organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency Technologies The benefits of nuclear flexibility in power system operations with renewable energy This journal article presents a novel mixed integer linear programming formulation to more accurately represent the distinct technical operating constraints of nuclear power stations, including impacts of xenon transients in the reactor core and changing core reactivity over the fuel irradiation cycle. This novel representation of nuclear flexibility is integrated into a unit commitment and economic dispatch model for the power system. Using representative utility data from the southwest United States, the authors investigate the potential impacts of flexible nuclear operations in a power system with significant solar and wind energy penetration; they find that flexible nuclear operation lowers power system operating costs, increases reactor owner revenues and substantially reduces curtailment of renewables. 7/2/18 Applied Energy Technologies A review on the development of nuclear power reactors These conference proceedings present a review of nuclear power developments in the past, present and future, including pressurized water reactors (PWR), small modular reactors (SMR), and advanced reactor designs.  The authors position the evolution of nuclear technology in the context of the search for a clean energy system with resilience. 2/1/19 Energy Procedia: Second International Conference on Energy and Power Technologies Dynamic performance analysis of two regional nuclear hybrid energy systems This journal article describes the benefits of nuclear renewable hybrid energy systems. The authors describe the increased flexibility and emissions reductions that such systems enable as well as the ancillary services they can provide. 7/15/16 Energy Applications Multidisciplinary engagement at research reactors: The NCSU PULSTAR The PULSTAR reactor at North Carolina State University (NCSU) went critical in 1972 and has been operating at one megawatt thermal since then. To enhance the engagement of the PULSTAR in the institutional mission of NCSU, a strategic plan with well-defined education, research and service/outreach objectives has been under implementation since 2002. The combination of capabilities and partnerships has resulted in significantly enhanced utilization levels of the PULSTAR, which now approach 10,000 user hours annually. According to the authors of this report, the PULSTAR has succeeded in meeting or exceeding institutional metrics for educational impact, multidisciplinary engagement, academic/scientific performance and the ability to be self-supporting. 1/1/17 18th IGORR (International Group Operating Research Reactors) Conference Implementations Collaborative research programme in decommissioning, immobilisation and storage solutions for nuclear waste inventories (DISTINCTIVE) The UK government has provided clear milestones regarding the needs of waste management and decommissioning, according to the authors of these proceeding. Most of these milestone rely on research and technical developments being delivered over the next 10–20 years. And the DISTINCTIVE (Decommissioning, Immobilisation and Storage Solutions for Nuclear Waste Inventories) consortium is carrying out research that addresses the broad area of nuclear waste and decommissioning, bringing together industry partners and academic researchers from 10 research-intensive universities in the UK. The research being carried out is multidisciplinary and covers both fundamental and applied topics, with research projects clustered in four major themes: advanced gas-cooled reactors; Magnox and exotic spent fuels; PuO2 and fuel residues; legacy ponds and silo wastes; and structural integrity. 1/1/16 Annual Waste Management Conference (WM2016): Education & Opportunity in Waste Management Technologies Small modular reactors: Licensing constraints and the way forward According to the authors of this journal article, a significant barrier to deployment of small modular reactor (SMRs) is the licensing process, which historically was developed for large reactors. The authors “enlarge the view” to all the SMR-related implications on the licensing process, presenting their legislative implications and market effects. 3/15/15 Energy Technologies Current status and emerging trends in financing nuclear power projects This journal article addresses recent trends in the private finance of nuclear power projects. The authors focus on the changing risk factors and ownership structures that can be employed to mitigate risk as well as contractual arrangements that can lower the fiscal burden associated with nuclear power projects for both governmental and private investors. 12/1/17 Energy Strategy Reviews Economics Modern financial models of nuclear power plants The evolution of the financial models of nuclear power plants in the world happens based on a trend from government financing, corporate financing, hybrid financing to project finance, according to the authors of this journal article. And this trend is moving towards a greater involvement of private capital instead of a reduction of the share in public funds. The authors discuss a few modern financial models, including government-to-government financing, loan guarantees, host government-backed power purchase agreements (PPAs), vendor financing and investor financing. 1/1/19 Progress In Nuclear Energy Economics The future of nuclear energy in a carbon-constrained world The report examines opportunities and challenges for policymakers, utilities, existing and startup energy companies, regulators, investors and other power-sector stakeholders, given advances in inherently safer technologies, a sharpened focus on the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the energy sector, and challenges faced by nuclear energy. 1/1/18 MIT Energy Initiative Technologies Advancing the landscape of clean energy innovation This report describes the U.S. ecosystem of clean energy innovation from the perspectives of technological potential, investment patterns, institutional roles and public policy. It identifies critical strengths and weaknesses of the ecosystem and offers recommendations for making it more effective. The authors examine the different technology readiness stages through which innovation passes and the importance of feedback among those stages. They also discuss the opportunities to accelerate the pace of clean energy innovation, including the development of advanced nuclear reactors. 2/1/19 Breakthrough Energy Technologies Small modular reactors design specificities of LWR- and HTGR-type SMRs, identification of issues of their deployments This presentation presents designs for light-water reactor (LWR) and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) variations of small modular reactors. It describes the benefits and challenges of each design, and it provides some details about global deployments. 5/6/19 International Atomic Energy Agency Annual energy outlook 2019 This report provides modeled projections of domestic energy markets through 2050, and it includes cases with different assumptions about macroeconomic growth, world oil prices, and technological progress. It predicts that use of renewables and liquefied natural gas will become dominant while coal and nuclear use will decline, with no new plants being built after 2021. 1/24/19 U.S. Energy Information Administration Economics Nuclear district heating plans from Loviisa to Helsinki metropolitan area This presentation depicts the market and geographic reach of the energy company Fortum. Its portfolio includes significant nuclear power holdings in northern Europe, including one in Loviisa, Finland, that provides district heating to the Helsinki metropolitan area. 4/1/13 Fortum|Joint NEA/IAEA Expert Workshop on the Technical and Economic Assessment of Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy Applications Moving towards 24x7 carbon-free energy at Google data centers: Progress and insights This document presents Google's summary of its efforts to become a an exclusively carbon-free energy consumer.  Depending on the operating environment, Google contracts solar, wind, hydro, biomass, or nuclear power.  In Finland, Google contracts approximately 40% of its power from hydropower and nuclear sources. The report cites that establishing 24x7 carbon-free electricity is easier at its data centers with access to nuclear power plants. 5/6/19 Google Applications Nuclear hybrid energy systems Рregional studies: West Texas and Northeastern Arizona The primary objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES), including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [NHES]) and (2) assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. The study was performed for specific regional cases based on available resources, existing infrastructure and markets within the selected regions. The authors briefly address the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, review technical gaps and suggest some future research paths. 4/1/15 Idaho National Laboratory Applications The Fukushima Daiichi accident: Report by the Director General This report describes the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on an evaluation of data and information from many sources. 1/1/15 International Atomic Energy Agency Technologies Nuclear in the states toolkit: Policy options for states considering the role of nuclear power in their energy mix (Version 2.0) According to this report, a combination of market factors are leading to premature closures of American nuclear power plants despite long-term performance levels. The authors hypothesize that closures will result in the loss of 60% of carbon-free generation, a less-diverse power supply and negative economic consequences. 6/1/16 American Nuclear Society (ANS) Special Committee on Nuclear in the States Economics Upgrading of waste heat for combined power and hydrogen production with nuclear reactors This research paper presents a new heat upgrading method that uses waste heat from nuclear reactors for thermochemical water splitting with a copper-chlorine cycle, resulting in hydrogen and oxygen production as well as increased efficiency.  The authors also analyse the performance of the overall system. 7/7/10 Nuclear Power Applications Study of a nuclear energy supplied steelmaking system for near-term application This study examines the use of a nuclear power plant as a heat generator for the production of steel. Hydrogen and oxygen serve as reactant and fuel, and water decomposition manufactures the required feedstock gases. 3/1/12 Energy Applications Hybrid nuclear-renewable energy systems: A review The author of this journal article argues that the the operating characteristics of nuclear and renewable energy sources make them well-suited to joint operation in integrated energy systems with a small carbon footprint. 4/20/18 Journal of Cleaner Production Applications Benefits and cost implications from integrating small flexible nuclear reactors with off-shore wind farms in a virtual power plant This journal article describes a virtual power plant arrangement that combines intermittent offshore wind farm production with firming capacity generated by small to medium-sized reactors. The authors found that the combined system offered several advantages including improved economic performance, flexibility, and reliability. 7/1/12 Energy Policy Technologies Preliminary analysis of an integral small modular reactor operating in a submerged containment This journal article describes a scaled version of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) small modular reactor design. A numerical model of the design of this submerged reactor indicates efficient heat transfer and unique safety features that protect against Fukushima-like scenarios such as loss of offsite power or loss of ultimate heat sink. 8/1/18 Progress in Nuclear Energy Technologies Nuclear renewable energy integration: An economic case study The authors of this journal article propose a nuclear renewable energy integration (NREI) system that incorporates nuclear and wind energies in combination with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) to yield hydrogen. The nuclear component is represented by a small modular gas-cooled reactor. The authors compare the economics of three cases: nuclear power plant, nuclear and wind-combined facility, and a nuclear-wind-hydrogen production facility, using wholesale electricity prices and market conditions from the PJM deregulated and the Mid-C regulated market hubs. 10/1/15 The Electricity Journal Technologies Nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems: opportunities, interconnections, and needs This journal article describes integrated facilities comprised of nuclear reactors, renewable energy generation and industrial processes that can simultaneously address the need for grid flexibility, greenhouse gas emission reductions and optimal use of investment capital. Six aspects of interaction (interconnections) between elements of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems are identified: thermal, electrical, chemical, hydrogen, mechanical, and information. Additionally, system-level aspects affect selection, design, and operation of this hybrid system type. The authors identify gaps and research needs to promote further exploration. 2/1/14 Energy Conversion and Management Technologies The economic potential of two nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems This report investigates the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems. It provides results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. The first is a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario that includes four subsystems, including a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, wind power plant and synthetic gasoline production technology. The second is an Arizona-desalination scenario with its four subsystems a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, photovoltaics and a desalination plant. 8/1/16 Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis Applications The economic potential of three nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems providing thermal energy to industry This report provides technical and economic analysis of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems, building on the case studies—and modifying the scenarios—of previous analysis by the authors. In this analysis, the Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario provides the basis; however, the industrial process is removed. Instead, the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Also included are subsystems that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. 12/1/16 Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analsis Applications The economic potential of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems producing hydrogen Part of a multivolume series, this volume provides an analysis of the economic potential of a tightly coupled nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HES) that produces electricity and hydrogen. Both low- and high-temperature electrolysis options are considered in the analysis. Low-temperature electrolysis requires only electricity to convert water to hydrogen. High-temperature electrolysis requires less electricity because it uses both electricity and heat to provide the energy necessary to electrolyze water. 4/1/17 Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis Applications Innovative configuration of a hybrid nuclear-solar tower power plant The authors of this journal article propose a combination of a nuclear and a concentrating solar photovoltaic (CSP) plant, and they perform a thermodynamic analysis of the potential benefit of the combination. Most current nuclear reactor systems are producing saturated steam at relatively low pressure, which limits their thermodynamic efficiency. Superheating of nuclear steam with solar thermal energy has the potential to overcome this drawback, according to the authors. So, they assemble and simulate an innovative configuration of a hybrid nuclear-CSP plant. They find that the increased efficiency leads installed cost reductions of up to 25% for a solar tower island over a standalone CSP plant. 4/15/17 Energy Applications Hybrid nuclear thermal energy storage system revenue with design and market uncertainty This paper considers a generic thermal energy storage (TES) system as a retrofit to an existing nuclear power plant in the United States (Texas). The authors use a validated PLEXOS model of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid to simulate electricity market clearing in 2030. They use three scenarios of natural gas price forecasts with a coupled capacity expansion model to simulate the deployment of competing technologies. The power, energy capacity and ramp rate of the TES system are varied parametrically in order to calculate the revenues arising from arbitrage as well as ancillary services. The authors find that increasing the ramp rate and power increases the storage system net revenue in all cases. And increasing energy capacity has a positive effect on net revenue in a small number of cases but has mixed results overall. 7/1/17 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors This journal article reviews historical trends in the construction costs of reactors worldwide. The authors discuss the impact of the learning curve on costs and find that in some national environments costs have plateaued whereas in others they have decreased. 4/1/16 Energy Policy Economics Assessing the impact of nuclear retirements on the U.S. power sector This work presented in this journal articles uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to analyze the impacts of four nuclear retirement scenarios of the U.S. electricity sector, from nuclear plant lifetimes of 50 to 80 years. According to the analysis, longer nuclear lifetimes resulted in lower cumulative and annual carbon emissions, lower transmission builds, and higher energy curtailment and water usage. 11/1/17 The Electricity Journal Applications Small modular reactors: A comprehensive overview of their economics and strategic aspects The goal of this journal article is to provide a review and a holistic assessment of small modular reactors, with a specific focus on light water reactors. It provides a state-of-the-art assessment of their life cycle, along with a comparison of their merits relative to other base-load technologies. The authors finds that in the 1-3 GWe range, these reactors are a suitable choice when considering social benefits such as employment growth. 5/1/14 Progress in Nuclear Energy Technologies Cost-benefit analysis of district heating systems using heat from nuclear plants in seven European countries This journal article reviews nuclear district heating implementations from seven countries in Europe, complete with cost benefit analysis and sensitivity analysis. Seven of the eleven cases reviewed were found to be cost effective, and potential for system expansion was found in the UK and France. 4/15/18 Energy Applications Nuclear power in developing countries This brief describes the gap in nuclear power plant deployments between developing and industrialized nations. The authors argues that assistance from industrial nuclear countries is a critical to the successful development of a nuclear power program, and they highlight specific cases to support their claim. 1/1/84 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Bulletin Partnerships Spent nuclear fuel with a hybrid heat pipe for electricity generation and thermal management The authors of this journal article propose generating electricity using spent nuclear fuel using a hybrid heat pipe system comprised of a dry storage cask with heat pipes and a Stirling engine. Using a 1/10-scale test facility, they conducted an experimental test of heat transfer and electricity generation as the module of the storage system, and their results agree with a theoretical model. 10/1/18 Energy Conversion and Management Technologies Development and techno-economic analysis of small modular nuclear reactor and desalination system across Middle East and North Africa region This journal article presents a study to evaluate the status of small modular nuclear reactors and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-assisted desalination projects for the Middle East and North Africa region. The authors (1) discuss the potential of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for adopting nuclear reactors and coupled nuclear reactor desalination, (2) examine the theoretical and computational techniques that could be best suited for adopting nuclear desalination and (3) discuss the techno-economics analysis of CAREM and SMART nuclear reactors with cost estimation. 3/16/17 Desalination Technologies Dynamic analysis of hybrid energy systems under flexible operation and variable renewable generation - Part I: Dynamic performance analysis This journal article presents two hybrid energy system (HES) models. One, termed traditional, produces electricity only and consists of a primary heat generator, a steam turbine generator, a wind farm and a battery storage. The other, termed advanced, includes the components present in the traditional model but also a chemical plant complex to repurpose excess energy for non-electricity services, such as for producing chemical goods. The authors present key dynamical properties and limitations to HES and prescribes solutions for best managing and mitigating the high variability introduced when incorporating renewable energy into the energy mix. They also discuss the unique design considerations of a nuclear HES. 4/1/13 Energy Applications Coupling heat storage to nuclear reactors for variable electricity output with baseload reactor operation This journal article addresses heat storage coupled nuclear reactors, which can provide dispatchable electricity while operating at full power. Six classes of heat storage technologies couple to light-water reactors with steam cycles. Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage (FIRES) converts low-price electricity into high-temperature stored heat for industry or power. FIRES and brick recuperators coupled to nuclear Brayton power cycles may enable high-temperature reactors to buy electricity when prices are low and sell electricity at higher price, according to the authors. 4/1/18 The Electricity Journal Applications Efficiency enhancement of solar chimney power plant by use of waste heat from nuclear power plant This journal article presents the solar chimney power plant system as an alternative to conventional cooling towers for nuclear power plants. The authors use computational fluid dynamics and thermal analysis to model and simulate the combined cycle. They find an overall efficiency gain of 6.5% and propose that the model would be viable in water-scarce environments. 5/7/19 Journal of Cleaner Production Technologies Decarbonizing the electric sector: Combining renewable and nuclear energy using thermal storage This journal article addresses the application of nuclear in a hybrid renewable energy system. A challenge of balancing variable renewables with nuclear is that operating nuclear power plants in load-following modes decreases the plants' annual energy output and increases the levelized cost of energy, decreasing economic competitiveness. One possible solution is to couple thermal energy storage to nuclear power plants. According to the authors, doing so would enable the reactor to remain at nearly constant output while cycling the electrical generator in response to the variability of the net load. The authors conceptually explores combinations of wind, solar and nuclear that could provide a large fraction of a system's electricity, assuming the use of thermal energy storage that would allow nuclear power to provide load following and cycling duty while operating at a constant reactor power output. 5/1/12 Energy Policy Applications Economic viability of small nuclear reactors in future European cogeneration markets Small, combined heat and power (CHP), and high temperature reactor designs have been found to couple well with the industrial and thermal energy needs of European cities, but little is known about the future market potential for these designs, according to the authors of this article.  They show that the greatest potential is in chemical/petroleum, paper, metal and bioenergy markets with small capacities (50‚Äì250 megawatts thermal). Parametric analysis was used to create a cost breakdown (capital, operations and maintenance, fuel, and decommissioning) for an equivalent nuclear-CHP system that could compete with coal-CHP and natural gas-CHP. Sensitivity analysis showed that reactor capital costs and the costs of capital had the largest influence on competitiveness. In summary, the opportunities for nuclear CHP are highest in natural gas-CHP markets; however, the benefits for CO2 reduction were greatest against coal-CHP. 4/1/12 Energy Policy Applications Rethinking the future grid: Integrated nuclear renewable energy systems This report explores a tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing and transportation sectors. The authors identify candidates representing region-specific hybrid energy systems for further study, and they present figures of merit that will be used to assess system performance. 12/1/14 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Applications Nuclear power programmes in developing countries: Promotion and financing This report from 1987 identifies nuclear power as the sole cost-effective clean energy source available at the time. The authors also identify constraints that developing countries might face in implementing a nuclear power program. They close by defining the role that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can play in executing programs in developing nations and identifying recommendations to enable these efforts. 1/1/87 International Atomic Energy Agency Economics A coupled nuclear reactor thermal energy storage system for enhanced load following operation This thesis explores the role of nuclear power plants as load followers in a hybrid renewable energy system using thermal energy storage. In this case, the author describes a prismatic-core advanced high temperature reactor operating at constant power with molten salt storage supplying power to a secondary energy conversion system. The discussion includes a description of the model and its safety features. 1/1/15 Colorado School of Mines Applications Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors In these PNAS proceedings, the authors use interviews with 16 experts to evaluate two small modular reactor (SMR) designs based on engineering-economic assessment experiences. They provide estimates of the overnight cost and construction duration for five reactor-deployment scenarios that involve a large reactor and two light water SMRs. The experts interviewed identify more-affordable unit cost, factory fabrication and shorter construction schedules as factors that might make light water SMRs economically viable. 5/28/13 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Technologies Economic evaluation of small modular nuclear reactors and the complications of regulatory fee structures This journal article evaluates the potential for small modular reactors (SMRs) in the United States, develops a techno-economic assessment of SMRs and then uses the model to evaluate U.S. regulatory fees structures. 5/1/17 Energy Policy Technologies An option for the integration of solar photovoltaics into small nuclear power plant with thermal energy storage This journal article details the integration concept of solar photovoltaics into a small nuclear power plant. The concept also details the role of thermal energy storage in the hybrid plant. 12/1/16 Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments Technologies Scale and innovation in the energy sector: a focus on photovoltaics and nuclear fission This journal article highlights the advantage held by first-mover technologies in the energy industry, which presents a barrier to newer, cleaner technologies unless sufficient efficiency and cost gains can be demonstrated. According to the authors, nuclear fission and solar photovoltaics provide a test case for understanding the value of "going small" in order to move innovation forward. 12/5/06 Environmental Research Letters Technologies Nuclear fuel recycling: National and regional options for the US nuclear energy system This journal article examines the impact of different options for advanced fuel cycle facilities needed for the U.S. nuclear energy market alone and under a partnership scenario with Brazil.  Three technologies are considered: (1) thermal recycling of transuranics (TRUs) in light water reactors using Combined Non-Fertile and UO2 Fuel (CONFU), (2) recycling of TRU in fertile-free metallic fuel in fast actinide burner reactors (ABRs) and (3) fast recycling of TRU with uranium oxide in self-sustaining gas-cooled fast reactors. 3/29/10 Energy and Environmental Science Technologies Recycling of nuclear spent fuel with AIROX processing This report examines the concept of recycling light water reactor (LWR) fuel using a dry-processing technique known as the AIROX (Atomics International Reduction Oxidation) process. In this process, the volatiles and the cladding from spent LWR fuel are separated from the fuel. And the fuel is then re-enriched and made into new fuel pins with new cladding. The feasibility of the concept is studied from a technical and high-level waste minimization perspective. 1/1/92 U.S. Department of Energy Technologies Recycling the actinides, the cornerstone of any sustainable nuclear fuel cycles The authors of this journal article argue that for nuclear systems to be part of the clean energy future a shift towards more-efficient fuel cycles is required, in which (1) natural resources are saved, (2) nuclear waste are minimized, efficiently confined and safely disposed of, and (3) safety and proliferation-resistance are ensured. According to the authors, the shift requires evolutionary recycling of the major actinides U and Pu up to their optimized use as energetic materials using fast neutron spectra and, as an optional step, implementing recycling of minor actinides, which are the main contributors to the long-term heat power and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. 1/1/12 Procedia Chemistry Technologies Nuclear Finance Seminar Series - Session 1 This first session of the United States Government's Nuclear Finance Seminar Series focused on understanding the challenges of nuclear power plant financing, understanding the concept of reputational risk in the context of an nuclear power plant, and understanding how reputational risk impacts nuclear power plant financing. 

Session slides
Additional references and reading material
11/9/20 Energy white paper: Powering our net zero future This energy white paper sets out how the United Kingdom (UK) will clean up its energy system and reach net zero emissions by 2050. It¬†builds on the Prime Minister‚Äôs¬†Ten point plan¬†for a green industrial revolution and¬†addresses the transformation of UK's energy system, promoting high-skilled jobs and clean, resilient economic growth to deliver net-zero emissions by 2050. 12/14/20   Policies Valuing Nuclear in Energy Modeling This presentation summarizes the basics of techno-economic analysis and how to factor nuclear energy into long-term planning scenarios.  3/2/21 Applications Pathways to net zero using nuclear innovation This brochure outlines international perspectives on the role of nuclear energy and innovation in reaching our climate targets.¬†This document is a product of the Nuclear Innovation: Clean Energy Future (NICE Future) initiative under the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM), coordinated by the UK‚Äôs Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) in its capacity as a co-lead country for the Flexible Nuclear Campaign. 5/21/21   Applications Actions to Enable Flexible Nuclear Energy In April 2021, the NICE Future initiative¬†convened a virtual workshop with over 50 experts from a dozen countries to discuss and identify barriers to the deployment of flexible nuclear energy. The results of this workshop and key actions that can enable flexible nuclear energy are summarized in this publication. 9/14/21   Technologies